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Impact of Television
  • 67% of US households have 2 or more TVs
  • 63% of US households receive 30 or more channels
  • TV is the main source of news for 70% of the US public
  • The average household views 7 hours, 12 minutes of TV daily every day
  • TV changed US lifestyles, as more spare time was spent with TV, less at civic or social gatherings

    Impact of TV on Other Media
  • Newspapers - TV took away most national advertisers from newspapers
  • Magazines - TV took away most national advertisers from magazines, forcing magazines to serve niche audiences instead of more generalized mass audiences
  • Movies - TV forced the movie industry to focus on improved production qualities (color, surround sound) to compete with TV programming
  • Radio - TV forced radio out of the narrative content programming business and into niche markets like music

    TV Timeline
  • 1927 - Philo Farnsworth develops picture tube
  • 1939 - RCA demos TV at NY World’s Fair
  • 1947 - CBS begins first TV newscast
  • 1951 - I Love Lucy
  • 1975 - HBO delivered via satellite for cable TV
  • 1976 - WTBS delivered via satellite for cable
  • 1986 - Fox Network, first “fourth” network
  • 2009 - Scheduled switchover to digital TV in US

    I Love Lucy – 1951
  • First pre-recorded serial TV program
  • First program to use multiple cameras in production
  • First program to feature an “interracial” couple - advertisers were initially wary
  • First TV series to be filmed in LA
  • Became the most popular sitcom of its day
  • Because they held the rights to the show, Lucy & Desi became the first multi-millionaire TV stars

    Broadcast TV Programming
  • Broadcast TV aims for a general audience
  • Broadcast TVand schedules programming to reach the greatest number of people who are available to view.
  • Radio, by contrast, reaches a niche audience via its format.
  • Broadcast television is the last mass medium

    TV Dayparts
  • Early Morning (6am-9am) - Children, homemakers, adults getting ready for work, retirees.
  • Morning (9am-12pm) - Preschoolers, homemakers, retirees, shift workers
  • Afternoon (12pm-4pm) - Morning audience plus working adults who come home for lunch, children returning from school
  • Early Fringe (4pm-6pm) - Return of most working adults begins
  • Early Evening (6pm-7pm) - In most markets, all segments of the audience are home
  • Prime Access (7pm-8pm) - All audience segments are available to view
  • Network Prime Time (8pm-11pm) - Everyone but children, retirees, and people who have to get up early
  • Late Fringe - (11pm-11:35pm) - Mostly adults
  • Late Night (11:35pm-2:05am) - Mostly adults
  • Overnight (2:05am-6am) - Mostly shift workers

    Evening News Viewership (ABC, NBC, CBS) Is Declining

    Source: The State of the News Media 2007.

    Young People Are Not Watching the TV Evening News

    Morning News Viewership

    Source: The State of the News Media 2007.

    TV News Show Formats
  • Evening Newscasts - World News Tonight
  • Sunday Interviews - Meet the Press
  • Newsmagazines - 60 Minutes
  • Documentary - CNN Presents, Frontline
  • Morning Shows - Good Morning, America
  • Talk Shows - “Inside Story,” “Puerto Rico Panorama” mostly local
  • Tabloid News - Entertainment Tonight

    Broadcast TV: Network Affiliates
  • Network provides most of daily program content
  • Network compensates affiliate for carrying programs, increasing revenues
  • Network programs attract large audiences
  • Networks provide plenty of promotion
  • New competition (cable, satelite, Internet, etc.) makes network relationship less valuable


    Cable TV
  • More than 11,000 cable systems
  • Almost 97% of US households are able to access cable TV
  • About 67% of those households actually do subscribe to cable TV (penetration)
  • About 66 million households subscribe to cable
  • About 48 million households subscribe to premium cable services
  • Cable audience share has been rising as broadcast audience share has been dropping

    Cable TV Regulation
  • Franchising is to cable TV what the licensing process is to broadcast
  • FCC governs broadcasting regulations.
  • Local governments (plus some specific bills passed by Congress and monitored by the FCC) govern cable franchising process

    Top Cable Operators by Number of Household Subscribers
  • Comcast - 21 million
  • Time Warner - 11 million
  • Charter - 6 million
  • Cox - 6 million
  • Adelphia - 5 million

    All-News Cable Channels
  • Fox News - 881,000 daily viewers
  • CNN - 480,000 daily viewers
  • MSNBC - 232,000 daily viewers
  • CNN Headline News - 194,000 daily viewers
  • CNBC - 165,000 daily viewers

    The Prime Time Cable TV News Audience Is Growing

    But Cable TV News Viewership Is a Tiny Fraction of Network News Viewership

    Source: The State of the News Media 2007.

    Local TV Stations
  • The local TV news team is the most-visible identity of any local TV station
  • Local TV stations spend more money producing local news than any other form of original content

    Daily Hours of Local TV News

    Source: The State of the News Media 2007.

    Top Stories, in Order of Appearance, on Local TV News

    Source: The State of the News Media 2007.

    Where People Get Their TV News

    Source: The State of the News Media 2007.

    Top 10 Local TV Stations

    Source: The State of the News Media 2007.

    US Broadcasting Regulation
  • Scarcity Principle - Defunct as of 1987
  • Trusteeship Rationale - The airwaves are public property and broadcast licensees must serve the “public interest, convenience and necessity.”
  • Ownership Regulation - Greatly reduced in 1996. No one company may reach more than 50% of the nation’s population
  • Content Regulations - Radio and TV content is more regulated than print content

    US Broadcasting Content Regulation
  • Equal Opportunity - Broadcasters must allow all legally qualified candidates for political office the same opportunity to air ads
  • False Advertising - Regulated by the FTC
  • Obscenity, Indecency, Profanity - In 1987, FCC defined indecency as “language or material that depicts or describes, in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards for the broadcast medium, sexual or excretory activities or organs.”
  • Contemporary community standards are now those of the average broadcast viewer or listener
  • Satellite radio, satellite TV and audio-visual content of the Internet is largely unregulated.

    Digital TV Switchover
  • All TV stations must broadcast digitally by February 17, 2009
  • Many stations are now broadcasting digitally as well as over traditional analog stations.
  • Many cable systems are now digital and carry local digital stations. Ex: Ch. 246 for WPVI.
  • Most TVs will need a converter to receive DTV programming.
  • DTV stations may broadcast four SDTV (standard definition) programs or one HDTV (high definition) program
  • 16x9 aspect ratio, surround sound and HDTV are all part of the DTV specification
  • Data may be embedded within DTV signal, creating “interactive” broadcast TV programming
  • Read the FCC’s Digital TV Fact Sheet
  • Comments

    July 2007

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